5 Components of Physical Fitness


But if you want to achieve and maintain optimal physical fitness, your fitness program must include all 5 of these components of physical fitness:

1. Muscular fitness


Muscular fitness includes muscular strength and muscular endurance. Muscular strength is the maximal force that a muscle or muscle group can exert while performing an exercise. Strength is important for everyday activities such as lifting and carrying objects. The best way to increase strength is to train with heavy weights, working in the 4-8 or 8-12 rep range.

Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle group to exert force against resistance over a sustained period of time. Repeated actions, such as climbing stairs or shoveling snow, require more endurance than do actions that are performed just once. To increase muscular endurance, train with lighter weights, working in a higher rep range, 15-20 reps, or for longer time intervals (for example, as many reps as possibly for 30 second intervals).

2. Aerobic fitness (cardiovascular endurance)


Cardiovascular endurance is the capacity of the heart, blood vessels, and lungs to deliver oxygen and nutrients to working muscles during exercise. The higher a person’ cardiovascular endurance, the more work he or she can perform without fatiguing. Sustained aerobic exercise, such as swimming, cycling, and hiking, all help to improve aerobic fitness.

3. Flexibility


Flexibility is the ability to move joints through their normal full range of motion, which is important for preventing injuries and maintaining correct posture while performing exercises or everyday tasks. Yoga classes, mobility warm-ups, and static stretching at the end of every workout all help to increase flexibility.

4. Body composition


Body composition refers to the body’s proportion of lean body mass (muscles, bones, organs, and skin) in relation to body fat. Body fat is considered either essential fat or extra, stored fat. Essential fat is considered 2-5% for men and 10-13% for women. To qualify as having a ‘fit’ level of body fat, men must have a body fat composition below 17% and women must have a body fat composition below 24%.

5. Mind/body vitality


Mind/body vitality is defined as an individual’s ability to alleviate unnecessary stress and tension from the body by integrating physical exercise and mental focus. Exercise forms such as yoga, tai chi, or martial arts, all include a mental component as well as a physical one. Purely mental training forms, such as meditation, can also help increase one’s mind/body vitality.

So what would a balanced physical fitness program look like?

If you are a cardio junkie who loves to run or bike, balance to you might look like 3-4 days of cardio exercise, with one or two days of strength training and one or two days of yoga per week.

If you’re more of a gym rat who loves lifting weights, you might have more days of weight lifting and one or two aerobic endurance days thrown in instead. Just make sure you mix up your workouts–and, of course, get proper nutrition and sleep, too!

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Cooking for One: 29 Insanely Easy, Healthy Meals You Can Make in Minutes

 Exercising for fitness is important but eating right is vital. I am posting this article here as a ready reckoner for those who want to eat healthy and complement their effort in the fitness class. Finding local equivalents of the ingredients shouldn’t be rocket science. And girls, count the nutrients and not the calories!
In the kitchen, one can be the loneliest number. The fear of leftover fatigue or doing the math to modify recipes for a single serving (whydo so many recipes make so much at once?) can drive anyone to order out or eat a sad bowl of cereal rather than cooking. After all, spending time making a dish that requires pans and utensils isn’t worth it when you’re dining alone, right?

We call BS. Not only can cooking healthy recipes for yourself provide some much-needed alone time, but a healthy, home-cooked dinner(or breakfast, or lunch) can help you feel accomplished and energized for whatever life throws your way. The best part is thatcooking for one is a lot quicker than cooking for a crowd.

We’ve gathered some of the healthiest, tastiest meals for one (or for one meal and just enough left over for lunch the next day) from around the web to inspire you to get in the kitchen (Yes, even if you don’t think you can cook). Treat yo’ self with these easy, yummy meals—you’ll be happy you don’t have to share.


Who said burrito bowls are just for dinner? The bed of greens works as a base for sweet potato, sauerkraut, eggs, and avocado—and a generous helping of taco meat. Though it’s touted as a morning meal, this hearty bowl will keep you full anytime of the day.

2. Mushroom and Herb Omelet

Who says omelets need to be complicated? This fancy-looking recipe just takes eggs, mushrooms, sour cream, and some of your favorite herbs. Herbs are easy to add, but make all the difference in taste.

Pizza for breakfast? Dreams do come true! But this isn’t a traditionalpizza. Caluliflower acts as the crust (but you can sub in a tortilla or pizza dough if you want!) while mashed avocado serves as the “sauce” (and a dose of healthy fats). The pizza’s also full of protein and omega-3s, thanks to the egg topping. Add prosciutto or bacon if you want a meatier, even more filling meal.

Peaches are an underrated fruit when it comes to smoothies—berries seem to get all the love. But that’s about to change with this recipe. A frozen peach (use fresh if you’ve got ‘em!) gets blended with heart-healthy walnuts, oats, and banana for a frozen breakfast with a ton of staying power.

These mini frittatas make for a healthy breakfast (or lunch, or dinner). Using zucchinis and peppers makes the dish feel fancy, but it’s ready in about 15 minutes. Add Italian seasoning and crushed red pepper to elevate the flavor for a weekend brunch (or a busy weeknight!).

Skip the Egg McMuffin and eat this breakfast sandwich instead. Low sodium bacon and fresh greens make this one a healthy treat. You can always sub the bagel for an English Muffin or piece of toast. Add some tomato and good-for-you guacamole to make this even more egg-cellent.


This simple, effortless recipe relies on fried eggs—every budget lover’s dream—while roasted red pepper and swiss cheese give it a gourmet twist. Experiment with your favorite add-ins—lettuce and tomatoes would complement this well.

The original cobb salad gets a healthier makeover with this barbecue chicken version that’s loaded with black beans, corn, and a whole bunch of tasty veggies. Add your favorite dressing (just go easy if you’re counting calories) to customize your creation.

Makes lunch for today and (maybe) tomorrow.

This is the perfect salad for when you’re in the mood for something light and sweet, but still filling. Antioxidant-rich strawberries, gorgonzola, and healthy-fat-filled avocado are tossed with superfood spinach and a super-simple homemade dressing starring poppyseeds gets drizzled on. Deliciousness ensues.

Makes lunch for today and tomorrow.

If you couldn’t get enough of the strawberry avocado combo above, then this recipe is for you. Goat cheese adds an unexpected flavor toast to this yummy panini. If you’re feeling something, meatier, though, grilled chicken would pair well.

These peppers feature a healthy spinach and quinoa combo, but they’re also chock-full of southwest-style ingredients: corn, salsa, black beans, and cilantro all make appearances. Though overall cooking time is a bit longer than the other recipes, the active prep time is minimal—and the end result is worth it.

Is it us, or do stuffed foods just taste better? Take this stuffedavocado, for instance, which is packed with garlicky shrimp. This recipe takes just a few simple ingredients—avocado, garlic, shrimp,heart-healthy olive oil, and seasonings—and turns them into a filling meal. Add a hardboiled egg as extra filling if you’d like.

Hummus isn’t just for dipping. Here, it acts as a spread for a sweet and savory grilled sandwich. Try adding in lettuce, tomatoes, sprouts, and your other favorite veggies for a produce-packed midday meal.


You’ll never eye the blue box again. This creamy mac and cheese gets made entirely in the microwave for those nights when you need comfort food, stat. If you have macaroni, shredded cheese, and milk at home, you’re ready to make this. Whole wheat macaroni adds a healthier twist; toss in less cheese (or opt for vegan options) if you’re watching your dairy intake.

If eating at Chipotle is burning a hole in your wallet, it’s time to try your hand at making burrito bowls at home. By combining precooked chicken with a handful of fresh, unprocessed ingredients, a healthy, delicious Mexican-inspired meal is just 10 minutes away—and a whole lot cheaper.

This dish is essentially a heaping bowl of the wonderful staples in Mediterranean cooking, including sundried tomatoes, olives, and artichoke hearts. All those flavors are tossed in olive oil, white wine, and garlic, then combined with your favorite (whole-wheat) pasta for a dinner that’s as easy as it is delicious. The leftovers are just as good, too!

Makes dinner tonight and lunch for tomorrow.

If you’re never eaten plantains before, this recipe is the perfect introduction. This banana-looking fruit gets sliced, fried (use just enough oil to submerge half of each slice), and sprinkled with sea salt. Serve with rice and black beans for a meat-free meal that’ll leave you wanting more. If frying isn’t your thing, these are just as tasty baked at 400F in the oven for about 20 minutes, with a flip halfway through.

Makes dinner tonight and lunch for tomorrow.

This supremely easy recipe turns a bowl of superfood quinoa into a full-fledged meal. While the quinoa cooks, red peppers and butternut squash get roasted and tossed with figs and seasonings. The result is a surprisingly tasty, healthy, and filing dish.

Spaghetti mixed with shrimp, superfood garlic, and just a touch of butter—this recipe is already winning. But then you add in a splash of cream, white wine (optional), and red pepper flakes for some heat, and this shrimp is out of this world! While the recipe calls for fresh shrimp, make it easier (and quicker) on yourself by using tail-off frozen shrimp. Up the health factor by choosing whole-wheat spaghetti.

Blame (or should we say thank?) the bacon for making this creamy pasta so darn good. This recipe is a lighter version of the traditional Italin dish (featuring peas and turkey bacon), but if you want to sub in regular bacon, you do you! If a fear of eating raw eggs has turned you off to carbonara in the past, don’t fret—the egg cooks right when it hits the pan.


With a name like that, you can’t go wrong. This low-calorie treat made with spelt flour, applesauce, and vanilla extract gets cooked in the microwave and topped with a mouthwatering streusel. The result is a low-calorie cake that will satisfy your sweet tooth when a late-night snack craving strikes.

How can you not love a dessert recipe that calls for just four tablespoons of flour? This dessert uses vitamin-packed pumpkin for a good-for-you cookie. Bonus: Try one of these weird but awesomepumpkin recipes to use up the rest of the canned pumpkin.

This traditional recipe can be made single-serve by scooping a heap of apple crisp into a wine glass. Tasty, small, and totally Instagram worthy!

We’ve all been faced with this problem: you want to bake yourself cookies, but just a few. Do you go to the effort, have one or two, and then give away the fruits of your hard labor, or do you try resisting an entire pan of homemade chocolate-y goodness? Finally, a solution! Baking one deep-dish cookie eliminates all those tempting leftovers—and it’s made in a ramekin which, let’s face it, is adorable.

Are these a dessert or a breakfast? All we know is they’re delicious. A pancake batter made of oats, Greek yogurt, and egg whites gets whipped together in a blender and then cooked in minutes. Stuffed with yogurt and jam, these make an awesome French-inspired dessert.

So Easy They Don’t Need a Real Recipe

Need some more inspiration? Try some of the “recipe-free” meals that Greatist team members enjoy whipping up when they’re all alone and hunger strikes.

26. Healthier Taco Salad

Taco Salad

Photo: Life in the Lofthouse

Chop and sauté half an onion and half a bell pepper. When they start to brown, add in ground turkey, beef, tofu, or veggie crumbles till cooked, sprinkling in taco seasoning. Combine meat, onions, and peppers with your favorite greens (spinach works nicely). Add in sliced avocado, black beans, corn, and (if you’re in the mood for some crunch) broken tortilla chips. Drizzle ranch dressing on top.

27. Tomato, Basil, Mozz Sandwiches

caprese sandwich

Photo: Bowl of Delicious

Drizzle olive oil on two slices of ciabatta bread or any crusty type of bread. Top with fresh sliced mozzarella cheese, tomatoes, and basil; add in your favorite Italian meat, like prosciutto or salami, and sprinkle black pepper, garlic powder, and crushed red pepper on top. Put the two halves together and cook in a pan over medium heat, flattening with a spatula, until cheese is totally melted.

28. Asian Shrimp Stirfy

Asian Shrimp Stirfy

Photo: Steamy Kitchen

Sauté leftover vegetables like chopped mushrooms, onions, peppers, carrots, and celery in sesame oil. When they’ve softened, add in shrimp and stir fry sauce. Cook until shrimp are pink (about 3-4 minutes). Add in a beaten egg for the last minute; stir to scramble. Serve over rice.

29. Balsamic Pasta

Balsamic Pasta

Photo: Before Its News


Saute shrimp in balsamic vinegar and brown sugar. Add cooked angel hair pasta and toss with more balsamic, olive oil, fresh tomatoes, basil, and garlic. Add thinly sliced mozzarella cheese and inhale.


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Aerobic exercise: what you need to know

What is aerobic exercise?

‘Aerobic’ exercise refers to exercise that requires the consumption of substantially more oxygen than at rest. It involves repeated rhythmic movements of the large muscles of your body, such as those in your arms or legs.

Examples of aerobic exercise include

  • brisk walking;
  • jogging;
  • swimming;
  • cycling;
  • dancing;
  • cross-country skiing;
  • ice-skating;
  • kayaking;
  • roller-blading; and
  • aerobic dance (often simply called aerobics).

Because you need more oxygen to do aerobic exercise, you breathe more rapidly and deeply to get extra oxygen into your lungs. Your heart also beats faster to deliver more oxygen-carrying blood from your lungs to your muscles.

How fast your heart beats and how rapidly you breathe will depend on how intense (hard) the exercise is, with gentle exercise causing only slight increases in breathing and heart rate, but more vigorous exercise resulting in greater increases.

Aerobic versus anaerobic exercise
The term ‘aerobic exercise’ comes from the fact that the energy used during this form of exercise is linked to the consumption of oxygen (aerobic metabolism). Aerobic exercise is of a light to moderate intensity, and is characterised by our ability to maintain it for a prolonged duration (many minutes to several hours).

Very strenuous exercise, such as running fast or rapidly cycling uphill uses energy at a very fast rate, and will exceed our muscles’ capacity to work aerobically. Exercise at these higher intensities does involve the use of oxygen, but also requires your muscles to undertake some additional metabolism without oxygen (anaerobic metabolism). This anaerobic metabolism results in the production of fatiguing factors that cause you to have to slow down and eventually stop. The length of time before this occurs will depend on how much anaerobic metabolism is involved, with higher exercise intensities that require greater anaerobic metabolism causing fatigue to occur more quickly.

How often should I do aerobic exercise?

For general health and fitness benefits, such as reducing your risk of heart disease and improving your stamina, it is recommended that you do some form of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on most, and preferably all, days of the week, for a minimum of 30 minutes a day. This 30-minute total can be made up of shorter 10-minute sessions, if this is better suited to your day. These short sessions will still provide health benefits and produce some fitness improvements, although to substantially increase your fitness you probably need to include at least some 30-minute sessions in your week.

To maintain your level of aerobic fitness, and the health advantages that go with it, you need to keep up a regular aerobic exercise routine. Giving up your routine or doing less exercise will cause your fitness and associated health benefits to decline.

It’s also important to avoid prolonged sedentary behaviour, such as sitting continuously for several hours. So, in addition to trying to incorporate exercise into your day, you should also try to break up your sedentary behaviours, for example by getting up and walking around your office for a few minutes every hour, or during the advertisement breaks when watching TV.

How hard should I do aerobic exercise?

To improve your general health and fitness, moderate intensity aerobic exercise is recommended. However, if you are very unfit and currently do no exercise, even short bouts of light exercise will be of benefit. With continued participation, this light exercise will produce fitness improvements that will enable you to progress to moderate intensity exercise.

As a general guide, ‘moderate intensity’ aerobic exercise may make you slightly breathless, but still able to hold a conversation, and you should be able to sustain this level of exercise for at least 30 minutes. An example would be when going on a brisk walk, jog or bike ride with a friend.

If you want to be more exact in determining your exercise intensity, then you can use your heart rate as a guide. Moderate intensity exercise is likely to increase your heart rate to between 55 and 70 per cent of your maximum heart rate. More vigorous exercise will increase your heart rate even further.

How to estimate your maximum heart rate

How to estimate your maximum heart rate
Your maximum heart rate in beats per minute = approx 220 minus your age

But this is a rough estimate, and there is a lot of individual variation. (Your maximum heart rate tends to decline by about 1 beat per year with increasing age.)

You can estimate your maximum heart rate by subtracting your age in years from 220. For someone who is 40, for example, their maximum heart rate would be estimated to be around 220 minus 40, which is 180 beats per minute. So, during moderate intensity exercise, this person could expect to have a heart rate between 99 and 126 beats per minute (55 to 70 per cent of their maximum heart rate). However, this is just a rough estimate, and some people can have maximum heart rates more than 20 beats above or below that estimated for their age. So it’s a good idea to also use your perception of how hard the exercise is — the guide of being slightly breathless but able to hold a conversation is a good one.

Beta-blockers and exercise

Beta-blockers are one type of medicine used to lower blood pressure as well as treat angina and certain heart rhythm disorders. They work by slowing down the rate at which the heart beats. People taking beta blockers should talk to their doctor about their planned exercise programme. Moderate intensity exercise is often recommended for people taking beta-blockers, but since the heart rate calculations described above do not apply to them, the best guide to determining a suitable exercise intensity is their perceived exertion.

Measuring your heart rate

If you do not possess a heart rate monitor, an easy way to measure your heart rate is to count your pulse for 10 seconds then multiply this count by 6 to calculate your heart rate per minute. To find your pulse, locate either your carotid artery (found on the side of your neck, just under your jaw bone) or your radial artery (in your wrist at the base of your thumb). Then gently place your index and middle fingers over the artery, but don’t press too hard or you will stop the flow of blood in that artery and not be able to detect a pulse.

Be aware that aiming for a target heart rate when exercising is a rough guide and may not work for some people. Older people who are physically fit may have a higher maximum heart rate than a younger, less fit person, and a higher maximum heart rate than that given by subtracting their age from 220.

Progressing to greater levels of fitness

If you are already active and getting 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise a week but want to attain a higher level of health and fitness, you will need to increase your aerobic exercise levels, either by exercising at a higher intensity and/or by doing more exercise.

Vigorous aerobic exercise — exercising at 70 to 85 per cent of your maximum heart rate — will result in further fitness and health gains. As a guide, at this intensity you will be breathing hard and finding it difficult to talk in full sentences between breaths. This level of exercise is more strenuous and should only be contemplated if you are already accustomed to regular moderate intensity aerobic exercise. To prevent ‘overdoing it’, it is a good idea to alternate between moderate and vigorous exercise days with, for example, 30 or more minutes of vigorous aerobic exercise on 3 or 4 days a week, interspersed with days of 30-60 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic exercise.

For people undertaking high-level sports training, a qualified trainer is likely to develop an individualised programme that varies from the above guidelines with regard to the intensity (how hard), the duration (how long) and the frequency (how often) of the aerobic exercise sessions. This is because the main aim of their training is to improve their sporting performance – the associated health benefits that accompany this are a fortunate side benefit, rather than the main goal.

A balanced fitness programme

For people of all fitness levels, aerobic exercise should form part of a balanced exercise programme that also includes 2 to 3 sessions per week of exercise to increase muscle strength, e.g. resistance training; and some stretching and flexibility work, e.g. a basic stretching routine or attending a yoga class. Needless to say, healthy eating and plenty of rest will complete a well-rounded fitness programme.

Aerobic exercise precautions

Appropriate aerobic exercise is recommended for almost everybody, regardless of age, but may need to be modified to ensure its suitability for people with existing health problems.

If you have existing health problems, are at high risk of cardiovascular disease, or have muscle, bone or joint injuries, check with your doctor before undertaking an aerobic exercise programme. Also, men aged over 40 years and women aged over 50 years who have not exercised regularly in the recent past should check with a doctor before undertaking a programme of vigorous physical activity. The level and type of exercise may be adjusted to ensure that it can be undertaken safely and effectively.

As with any form of exercise, be aware of over-exercising, either by doing aerobic exercise too hard, for too long or too often. This approach can lead to injury and abandonment of your fitness programme. Remember to build up gradually from your current activity level, and not to progress too rapidly. If you are new to regular aerobic exercise, several weeks of low to moderate intensity aerobic exercise are usually advised before introducing more vigorous aerobic exercise sessions. When you do increase your level of aerobic exercise, increase only one component — the intensity, duration, or frequency of your aerobic exercise sessions — at a time.

It’s never too late to start

An important health and fitness message is that people of all ages can benefit from regular aerobic exercise. And, if you are unfit, unhealthy or an older adult, you may have the most to gain from including it in your lifestyle.

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Why Aerobicise?

‘Aerobic’ exercise refers to exercise that requires the consumption of substantially more oxygen than at rest. It is of a light to moderate intensity, and can be undertaken for a prolonged duration (many minutes to several hours) without excessive fatigue. Examples of aerobic exercise include walking, jogging, swimming or cycling at a steady pace. Another example would be dancing or ‘aerobics’ classes.

Regular exercise causes your body to make adjustments that result in improved health and physical functioning. Continuing with regular exercise enables your body to maintain these benefits. Regularly doing the right types of exercise at the correct intensity, and for an appropriate duration, results in the most benefit.

The benefits of aerobic exercise can be broadly categorised as either ‘fitness’ (physical capacity) or ‘health’. Fitness and health are linked, and most forms of aerobic exercise will help you achieve both.

Fitness — including increased cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance (stamina)

Regular aerobic exercise improves your cardiovascular fitness by increasing your capacity to use oxygen. It does this by increasing your heart’s capacity to send blood (and hence oxygen) to the muscles. This is mainly achieved through an increase in the size of the heart’s pumping chambers (ventricles), which means that your heart doesn’t have to beat as fast to deliver the same amount of blood. This is evident in a slower resting heart rate, and a slower heart rate for the same exercise intensity.

As you get ‘fitter’, particular activities (such as walking or jogging at a specified speed) will become easier.

You’ll also be able to undertake the activity for longer (known as endurance), and/or at a higher intensity (e.g. jogging at a faster speed). The same applies to activities such as cycling or swimming, but it should be noted that fitness tends to be specific. So jogging will provide only limited benefits to your swimming fitness and vice versa. However, a side-benefit you may notice is that you also have increased stamina for the everyday activities of life, not just for exercise.

Other fitness improvements occur in the exercising muscles, and are specific to those muscles being used in the mode of exercise (e.g. walking, running, cycling, or swimming). These include an increased capacity for the muscles to take up and use the additional oxygen being delivered by the heart.

Reduced risk of certain health problems

Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, colon cancer and breast cancer. It can lower blood pressure and improve your blood cholesterol by reducing the levels of LDL-cholesterol (so-called ‘bad’ cholesterol) and increasing the amount of HDL-cholesterol (so-called ‘good’ cholesterol). It can also reduce anxiety, stress and depression, as well as instilling a general sense of well-being. Regular aerobic exercise has even been shown to have the potential to increase your lifespan.

Low-impact aerobic exercise such as swimming is valuable for improving general health and fitness in people who have arthritis or other conditions that limit their ability to do weight-bearing exercise.

Importantly, whereas fitness tends to be quite specific, many health benefits can be gained from any form of aerobic exercise. Additionally, the health gains can be achieved from relatively moderate amounts of exercise — moving from a lifestyle involving no exercise to one that involves some exercise can lead to substantial improvements in health.

Weight control

Aerobic exercise burns up energy (calories). Regular sessions of 30 to 60 minutes of low to moderate intensity aerobic exercise (at around 55 to 70 per cent of maximum heart rate) can be an important part of a weight loss or weight management programme that is also mindful of the energy (calories) consumed as food.

However, many of the health benefits associated with aerobic exercise occur independently of weight loss. Evidence from large studies has shown that active, overweight people do not have a greater risk of many diseases than inactive people who are not overweight. From a health perspective, it is of course best to be both active and a healthy weight, but if weight reduction is a problem, it doesn’t mean that the exercise is having no benefit.

Improved bone and muscle health

Your risk of osteoporosis (excessive bone thinning as you age) can be reduced by regular weight-bearing aerobic exercise such as brisk walking.

By stimulating the growth of tiny blood vessels in your muscle tissues, aerobic exercise has also been shown to lessen the pain experienced by people who have fibromyalgia or chronic low back pain, as the oxygen supply to the muscles is improved and waste products are removed more efficiently.

Social benefits

Regular aerobic exercise can have social benefits too, whether you walk with a friend, play tennis with workmates, or form a social cycling team. Exercising with friends can also be the most effective way of ensuring that you do it regularly.

Aerobic exercise precautions

As with any form of exercise, be aware of over-exercising, either by doing aerobic exercise too hard, for too long or too often. This approach can lead to injury, and abandoning of your fitness programme. Remember to build up gradually from your current activity level, and not to progress too rapidly. If you are new to regular aerobic exercise, several weeks of low to moderate intensity aerobic exercise are usually advised before introducing more vigorous aerobic exercise sessions.

If you have existing health problems, are at high risk of cardiovascular disease, or have muscle, bone or joint injuries, check with your doctor before undertaking an aerobic exercise programme. Also, men aged over 40 years and women aged over 50 years who have not exercised regularly in the recent past should check with a doctor before undertaking a programme of vigorous physical activity.

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